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Go Back   FZ1OA Message Board > FZ1 & Fazer Owners Association > Exhausts, Carburetion & Performance > Gen 2 Exhausts, Fueling & Performance

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Old 05-28-2017, 11:58 AM   #1
Daveaz
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Thumbs up DaveAZ's ultimate Gen 2 Exhausts, Fueling & Performance post

I’d like to share what I learned about Gen 2 Exhausts, Fueling & Performance in a large single post, mostly because I like the idea of this information in one place. I tried to be thorough, so it is a bit long and verbose. As this is a forum, feel free to comment on anything, though I have no idea how to keep comments orderly since I touched on so much. I may revise this post to reflect corrections, errors and omissions.

Yamaha built the FZ1 as a sport-tourer. Tourers tend to attract older riders, so it has a stigma of being an “old man’s” motorcycle. The truth is that this motorcycle has an excellent foundation and can be modified to have the feel and handling of a sportbike, could be set up for touring, or could have any combination of the two. In the spirit of rivalry, I like to think of the Gen1 as the old man bike. (I kid, I kid.) Gen2 has 150hp from the factory, measured at the crank. Basic modifications bring it close to that at the rear wheel.

Like all motorcycles manufactured during these years, the FZ1 came from the factory loaded with emissions gear. Your first moral dilemma is to decide if you are happy enough with the motorcycle’s performance in stock form in order to leave this system (and money in your wallet) alone. You most likely wouldn’t be reading this if you are that person. Disclaimer: off-road use only, government compliance, yada yada.

There are sub-throttle butterfly valves (flies) mounted on top of the throttle bodies which are opened and closed by a servo motor controlled by the Engine Control Unit (ECU) computer.

The factory muffler has an “exhaust ultimate power valve” (EXUP) That is partially closed at idle and low rpm to reduce noise, and in the USA it closes again at the upper RPMs to meet peak noise and emissions regulations. In Europe, due to differing regulations, it does not.

There are two catalytic converters (cats) which cause chemical reactions in the exhaust gases resulting in reduction of smog pollutants emitted by the motorcycle, but an increase in greenhouse gases. One cat is located in the bulky heavy factory muffler and the other is at the end of the collector in the header.

There is an air induction system (AIS) that introduces air into the exhaust stream on closed throttle so the catalytic converters have available oxygen to burn. If you remove the cats, the AIS becomes obsolete and causes harmless popping sounds.

There is an oxygen (O2) sensor that works in conjunction with the ECU. The O2 sensor gives readings to the ECU for the purpose of minimizing pollutant output by sacrificing performance.

The ECU has three segments: Random Access Memory (RAM) for calculations, Fault for storage of fault codes, and Read Only Memory (Flash). The Flash is broken into two segments: Program flash, where algorithms and logic are stored, and Data flash, where the constants: lookup tables, curves, maps, arrays etc. are stored. These constants are stored in a dataset, and this is what is addressed in an ECU flash.
The calibration label constants are:
A. Individual gains (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative loops)
B. Limits (Min/ Max)
C. Curves ( Lookup Tables, output based on given single input)
D. Maps (Output based on 2 or more operating points)
The calibration constant labels and their values are called a Dataset. This dataset is what is overwritten when you get a flash.

The dataset from the factory has all its calibration labels (settings) aligned in conjunction with all of the emissions control hardware, and has additional federally mandated restrictions and fuel cut settings programmed in lookup tables that are also detrimental to performance.

The dataset contains a fuel map. A fuel map is a numerical graph which precisely controls the air/fuel mixture and ignition timing advancement based on readings from the throttle position sensor, speed sensor, O2 sensor and other sensors. A map is capable of optimum engine performance, better fuel economy, lower exhaust emissions, or more power and torque, depending on the map. The FZ1 dataset stores a single map for all conditions.

Now, to finally discuss the modifications:
Some modifications offer options that reap differing amounts of horsepower. I like to rationalize my purchases by assigning a dollar per HP value to purchases when options are involved. I suggest doing all of these modifications at once, followed immediately by flashing the ECU.

1. The airbox was designed to match the factory exhaust and is restrictive when used with aftermarket exhaust. A large section at the bottom of the airbox can be cut and removed, referred to as the Lars airbox mod. Some suggest to cut less plastic to reduce intake noise. I personally have not noticed any unpleasant intake noise.

2. Cleanable aftermarket air filters claim to allow more airflow with equal or better filtration. BMC and K&N make them.

3. Leave the sub-throttle butterfly valves alone. Modifying these is obsolete and is addressable in the ECU tune.

4. The exhaust system gives you options (All remove EXUP. Code goes away with ECU flash):
4a. You can retain the header portion, chisel out the catalytic converter, and get an aftermarket slip-on muffler. There are several to choose from with many performance, sound and cosmetic considerations.
4b. You can get an aftermarket full exhaust system. See dyno comparisons against the slip-on alone.

5. The AIS system can be blocked off. Block-off plates are inexpensive. Check ebay and tuners. You will learn a lot about tuners when you see the pricing of these and the justification.

6. Sprockets and chain: This is about delivery of the powerband and not actual horsepower. This is where the G-force seat of pants speed is most noticeable, though. You can adjust your final gear ratio by changing your sprocket sizes, which may also impact your chain length. This requires research for an outcome that suits your desires. The website http://www.gearingcommander.com/ can supply all the data you need to make your decision, but requires a time investment in learning what everything means.
I’ll start out by telling you what the last chart tells you. It is called “Relative sprocket & chain wear due to drive train changes.” When you compare a front sprocket with 16 teeth to one with 17 teeth, you will see that the 16 tooth sprocket has terrible wear characteristics and in the graph’s opinion (not green) should be avoided. Lots of people overlook this and go with the 16 tooth any way. The -1 front sprocket tooth has the same gearing impact as +2 rear sprocket teeth, so you can easily stick with the 17 tooth front and still obtain the same final gearing up to 49T before requiring a custom sprocket.

The larger a sprocket you go in the rear, the faster the bike is off the line- but at a sacrifice of your top speed. Regarding top speed, the factory 17/45 allows 175mph in 6th gear at 11600 rpm. I know of one person who elected to go 17/43 for a top speed of 183, but with such a lack of G’s in the lower RPM’s that he is looking at turbos. A lot of people suggest 16/46, so I selected the equivalent 17/49 (with 124 link chain.) I live in a city and will almost never open it up to hit top speed- which is now 160mph in 6th gear at 11600 rpm. The wear characteristics for 17/49 are better than stock.
A lot of this gearing decision will depend on your typical riding style and venue. If you are in a city driving light to light, if you are on open roads and can open it up without police, if you do trackdays and want to land that perfect laptime, if you are a European weirdo and are more concerned about your mileage economy after doing all the modifications… It is your decision. The key is to decide which RPM range you want to target the power to.

7. ECU… you finally made it through the hardware and are ready for the software.
When the 2gen FZ1 was released in 2006, the aftermarket did not have access to ECU programming and introduced an abundance of wire-in products that each attempted to address various portions of the system. (Speedo healers, EXUP servo buddy, Fuel Cut Eliminator, O2 sensor simulator, etc.) Consumers would Frankenstein them together. Almost all of these became obsolete overnight as soon as ECU flashing became available. Before you invest in anything, first confirm if it can be addressed in an ECU flash. Many tuners and customers invested in wire-in technology and still promote it and those tuners because it worked for them.

You will be sending your ECU to be flashed remotely unless you happen live near the flash tuner you decide on. Not all tuners have identical capabilities or equivalent offerings, so be prepared to ask and shop around. There is a list of specific settings that can be modified within the dataset, and flash tuners tend to not be specific of every detail in their specific flash. If they don’t discuss it on their website, don’t assume it isn’t addressed in their dataset. Ask and find out.

In the dataset, you can have the temperature that triggers the fans changed, The speedometer calibrated for gearing and tire diameter changes, raise the rpm limit, disable AIS, and disable EXUP & its fault code. Most flash datasets account for the factory settings that rob performance relating to emissions hardware, inhibitors, limiters, restrictions and fuel cuts, as well as to control the sub-throttle butterflies for performance instead of just a smoother throttle transition.

The fuel map can vary dramatically based on your goals for the motorcycle, the modifications you have made, and even the climate you ride in. Performance and fuel consumption can vary significantly, and not always relative to each other. Adjusting the fuel map to a generic one based on these factors can be included in your dataset flash if your tuner has this ability. If they do not and they still want to address the fuel map, you may need to wire-in an external fuel injection controller which will bypass the ECU fuel map. They will then supply you with a generic fuel map that is stored here instead of your ECU.

8. Power Commander or equivalent (external fuel injection controller):
There are distinct advantages and disadvantages to these products. I’ll start with the disadvantages, just to get them out of the way. Many owners choose to purchase this, get a generic flash, and leave it alone. While this may allow you to get a specific generic flash that you desire, it is a large expense for what is most likely a minor performance difference over having the fuel map addressed internally with the dataset. Other owners repeatedly experiment by comparing generic flashes, looking for the best seat-of-pants performance without really knowing which is their “best.”

The advantages of an external fuel injection controller are that you can bring your motorcycle to a dyno and have a custom tune performed for your exact bike in your exact location. Depending on the controller, you can store and switch between several maps, which gives you the ability to switch based on your specific activity. The purposes could be anything, such as track settings, economy, or with different hardware installed- like factory vs. aftermarket exhaust. It can also be used to accommodate drastic changes like camshafts, turbos and superchargers.

Some procedures that may impact performance:
9. Fuel line replacement: The factory fuel line has been known to kink. Replace it with a 16”L 5/16th” ID EFI hose & (2) EFI hose clamps. (No added performance unless yours is kinked, but you are in there any way.)

10. Balance throttle bodies: Doing this makes sure that all the cylinders are getting equivalent fueling. The engine runs smoother, vibrates less, and performs better.

11. Adjust throttle position sensor (TPS): The throttle position sensor tells the ECU how far open the throttle is. You can adjust the physical position of the sensor so the sensor reading is correct while the throttle is completely closed.

Deliberately skipped, but not to be overlooked:
12. Velocity stacks. These were designed based on specific airflow pattern that you change if you cut the airbox and change the filter. I would need to see dyno proof that these offer improvement when combined with other modifications. Feel free, but buyer beware.

13. Is this 140-150hp at the wheel range not enough for you? There are nitrous oxide kits, superchargers and turbos available. Remember that price per horsepower budget, and question why you selected this bike in the first place and are not just buying something else.

14. 2004-06 R1 Intake Camshaft. Intake cam can be used alone, or the exhaust cam needs the cam sensor notch re-machined to match FZ1 timing pulses. Moves the torque curve up 500rpm. Not commonly done. *(Requires a power commander and dyno tune. Changes exhaust requirements, likely removing gains from a full exhaust.)
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Old 05-28-2017, 12:40 PM   #2
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Most the people who have been here awhile already know this and have done Or they just are happy with what they have done. Welcone to the forum
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Old 05-28-2017, 12:47 PM   #3
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That is a very comprehensive list of engine performance mods with a thorough breakdown of the basics. Well done sir!
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Old 05-28-2017, 01:00 PM   #4
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Originally Posted by 2stangs6991 View Post
Most the people who have been here awhile already know this and have done or they just are happy with what they have done. Welcome to the forum
Yep. I'm sorry it isn't anything groundbreaking or mind-shattering. It's too bad none of those knowledgeable experienced people bothered to write a post like this and left me reading hundreds of posts for hours with obsolete conflicting information and opinions, leaving me having to research to answer tons of questions.

There will absolutely be people who will benefit from having this all in one place. Hopefully it is worthy of a sticky.

I'd like to see someone write a similar general comprehensive post in the Gen 2 Tires, Brakes, Suspension & Steering forum.

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That is a very comprehensive list of engine performance mods with a thorough breakdown of the basics. Well done sir!
Thanks!
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Old 05-28-2017, 05:10 PM   #5
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If the info isnt out there how do you think all these FZ1's got modified? Plus alot of Mods and improvements are baised on the opinion of who did them. All mods dont fit all people's ridding styles.
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Old 05-28-2017, 05:54 PM   #6
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The 16T front sprocket statement you made us untrue. I have 40K on a 16T front and it is still fine. You have some miss info in your list.
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Old 05-28-2017, 09:39 PM   #7
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Thanks for the sticky!

Quote:
Originally Posted by 2stangs6991 View Post
The 16T front sprocket statement you made us untrue. I have 40K on a 16T front and it is still fine. You have some miss info in your list.
I’m sorry that you are offended by my post.

I’m also sorry that you feel that you disagree with the gearing commander webpage’s calculations.
If you are interested in what their calculations take into account when calculating relative sprocket and chain wear, it can be found here: Chain & sprocket wear influences:
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Old 05-29-2017, 04:17 AM   #8
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Unneeded comment

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Old 05-29-2017, 06:21 AM   #9
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Stay on point here...........

The guy is trying to put together information for others to use. If you think or know its incorrect, how about simply pointing it out, instead of starting an argument.
Some points he makes are his POV, ymmv!

Peace out mic drop..........
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Old 05-29-2017, 08:23 AM   #10
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Well put.

Personally, I had no idea Yamaha ever made a "gen 2." Whatever that is.
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Old 05-29-2017, 03:11 PM   #11
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What a great thread. For many new owners- this is a primo summary.

+10000 for gearing commander's info. Y'all need to chill out, it's a very legitimate site I have used for years, referencing maaany many bikes.

And +10000 for whoever the hell thinks 40k on a front sprocket is okay- glad it's okay on your bike. I'm laughing.

17/49 on the 190/55 allday.
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Old 05-29-2017, 03:15 PM   #12
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Based on how blatantly you stick up for that site and disregard others experience on the sprocket matter, are you the creator of gearing commander??
Based on how you *clearly* haven't used the site, and hold in regard wild statements about having 40,000 miles on a front sprocket- from a guy who says "miss info" ... I think you're the one with misinformation.
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Old 05-29-2017, 06:28 PM   #13
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Unneeded comment. Carry on.

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Old 05-30-2017, 01:03 AM   #14
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Thanks for the appreciation!

Those meddlers almost caught me- the real reason I wrote this (and creating the gearing commander website?) was because I invested my life savings into 17T front sprockets, and those pesky 16T are ruining my retirement.

And yes, their attack on this post was a follow-up of an attack on facebook that in summary was: "How dare you write a post that invalidates my anecdotal evidence by referencing engineering math? You have a chip on your shoulder, and I've had a few beers..." Use your 16T. Make it out of aluminum in a 520 set. Tell the world it outlasted your bike. I don't care. You don't have to like me. (Haters gonna hate.)

Opinions are opinions. Everyone is entitled to them. I made the point of keeping bias out of my post other than budgetary bias. I didn't favor brand X or fanboy tuner Y. It is meant to be informational, not to make anyone feel threatened or stupid for making different choices.

I wrote it because I wanted to give something back to the FZ1 community after using this forum as a valuable resource. It is your motorcycle, do whatever the hell you want to it.
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Old 05-30-2017, 01:21 AM   #15
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Well stop playing around with these ..... so-called.... Gen 2 thingies and do a write up on the Gen 1.



...
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Old 05-30-2017, 06:51 AM   #16
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Good write-up and I don't disagree with the conclusions. I'm not sure the wear characteristics of a 16t front sprocket are so bad, but I'm sticking with a 17t. The acceleration, with an ECU flash and power commander, is more than adequate for me, and the 17t makes the cruising rpm at an indicated 70 (67 real speed) about 4500, which is nice and smooth. If there are two things I'd love to have fixed on the Fizzy Gen 2, it's the fuel capacity and the narrow gear spread. While the bike is a great sport tourer and comfortable for 500+ days, the gearing is really supersport-like, with a high first and low sixth. Still, there is no other street bike I'd prefer for a one-bike garage, where it has to do sport, touring, and commuting duty.
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Old 05-30-2017, 02:13 PM   #17
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Good write-up and I don't disagree with the conclusions. I'm not sure the wear characteristics of a 16t front sprocket are so bad, but I'm sticking with a 17t.
It's not that they're SO bad, it's that there is/are other combos that are much better- as far as chain wear goes.

Chain wear aside, people seem to ignore the increase/decrease in wheelbase associated with sprocket changes (on same chain). Of course Ive been told by a couple folks 'round these parts that "NO ONE CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE in 1/2" of wheelbase change" - which is the difference between going -1F OR +2R on a stock chain. Oh well. Nuances of all kinds aren't for everyone. LOL


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there is no other street bike I'd prefer for a one-bike garage, where it has to do sport, touring, and commuting duty.
Yes. Took me far too many machines to figure that out.
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Old 05-30-2017, 08:43 PM   #18
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ZX-Dominance View Post
It's not that they're SO bad, it's that there is/are other combos that are much better- as far as chain wear goes.

Chain wear aside, people seem to ignore the increase/decrease in wheelbase associated with sprocket changes (on same chain). Of course Ive been told by a couple folks 'round these parts that "NO ONE CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE in 1/2" of wheelbase change" - which is the difference between going -1F OR +2R on a stock chain. Oh well. Nuances of all kinds aren't for everyone. LOL




Yes. Took me far too many machines to figure that out.
I honestly don't know why folks sweat chain/sprocket lifespan so much. They're maintenance items, and relatively cheap. "My chain and sprockets only lasted 15k miles!!!!" So what. My rear tire only lasts 3k. If you want performance, things are gonna wear out faster.

Oh....if 1/2" wheelbase change didn't matter, no one would drop the front. "Oh! My front is lower and it dives in faster!" No shit, Sherlock. Dropping the front changes the wheelbase.
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Old 06-01-2017, 02:47 AM   #19
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Quote:
Originally Posted by pinball View Post
I honestly don't know why folks sweat chain/sprocket lifespan so much. They're maintenance items, and relatively cheap. "My chain and sprockets only lasted 15k miles!!!!" So what. My rear tire only lasts 3k. If you want performance, things are gonna wear out faster.
Some sprocket selections wear out a lot faster than stock, others (even of equivalent final ratio) outlast stock. It is a maintenance item where you can gain performance and it doesn't have to wear out faster.

If someone just wanted to throw $20.00 at a new front sprocket to experiment with gear ratios without replacing the whole set, it totally makes sense. Unfortunately, barely anyone bothers to check the wear characteristics, and will repeatedly purchase that same combination. When it is time for a new set of chain and sprockets, it is worth the effort to look into.

For this bike, 16T/46T (122L) and 17T/49T (124L) are +/- equivalent ratio. If you are going to have the bike for many years, you can save some money and labor by choosing wisely. That is just the ratio I went with, so you'd have to change the inputs to fit your scenario.


Explaination

Is it a big deal? No. Do I feel better knowing that parts will last longer and reduce my maintenance effort over the life of the bike? Yep. I thought it was information worth sharing and I never thought it would be controversial.
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Old 07-02-2017, 08:04 AM   #20
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Photobucket don't want to properly host that image.
Here it is again:


I put it in my album in my profile, in case it does not show up again.
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